Annals of Internal Medicine In the Clinic

In the Clinic is a monthly feature in Annals of Internal Medicine that focuses on practical management of patients with common clinical conditions. It offers evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions about screening, prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and patient education and provides physicians with tools to improve the quality of care. All ACP members and Annals subscribers have full access to this content.


Immune-Related Adverse Events of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are toxicities that arise after the administration of monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoints (immune checkpoint inhibitors [ICIs]) in patients with cancer. They can occur at any time after initiation of ICI treatment, with a broad clinical phenotype that can be organ-specific or systemic. Although most irAEs manifest as mild to moderate signs and symptoms, severe forms of irAEs can lead to irreversible organ failure and have acute life-threatening presentations. Treatment should be tailored to the specific organ involved and the severity. Glucocorticoids are the first-line treatment for most irAEs, with immunosuppressants and biologics mainly used as second-line treatments.

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Acute Colonic Diverticulitis

Acute colonic diverticulitis is a gastrointestinal condition that is frequently encountered by primary care and emergency department practitioners, hospitalists, surgeons, and gastroenterologists. Clinical presentation ranges from mild abdominal pain to peritonitis with sepsis. It is often diagnosed on the basis of clinical features alone, but imaging is necessary in more severe presentations to rule out such complications as abscess and perforation. Treatment depends on the severity of the presentation, the presence of complications, and underlying comorbid conditions. Medical and surgical treatment algorithms are evolving. This article provides an evidence-based, clinically relevant overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of acute diverticulitis.

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