Annals of Internal Medicine In the Clinic

In the Clinic is a monthly feature in Annals of Internal Medicine that focuses on practical management of patients with common clinical conditions. It offers evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions about screening, prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and patient education and provides physicians with tools to improve the quality of care. All ACP members and Annals subscribers have full access to this content.



COVID-19, the illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, became a worldwide pandemic in 2020. Initial clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infection to mild upper respiratory illness but may progress to pulmonary involvement with hypoxemia and, in some cases, multiorgan involvement, shock, and death. Older adults, pregnant persons, those with common comorbidities, and those with immunosuppression are at greatest risk for progression. Vaccination is effective in preventing symptomatic infection and reducing risk for severe disease, hospitalization, and death. Antiviral treatment and immunomodulators have been shown to benefit certain patients. This article summarizes current recommendations on prevention, diagnosis, management, and treatment of COVID-19.

Read this issue of In the Clinic.

Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among U.S. women and its incidence increases with age. Endogenous estrogen exposure, proliferative benign breast disease, breast density, and family history may also indicate increased risk for breast cancer. Early detection with screening mammography reduces breast cancer mortality, but the net benefits vary by age. Assessing a patient's individual breast cancer risk can guide decisions regarding breast cancer screening. All women benefit from healthy behaviors which may reduce breast cancer risk. Some women at increased risk for breast cancer may benefit from risk-reducing medications. Use of screening measures remains suboptimal, especially for uninsured women.

Read this issue of In the Clinic.

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