In the Clinic is a monthly feature in Annals of Internal Medicine introduced in January 2007 that focuses on practical management of patients with common clinical conditions. It offers evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions about screening, prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and patient education and provides physicians with tools to improve the quality of care. All ACP members and Annals subscribers have full access to this content.
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects approximately 2% of U.S. adults and is the most costly mental health condition for commercial insurers nationwide. Rates of BD are elevated among persons with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders—conditions frequently seen by primary care clinicians. In addition, antidepressants can precipitate manic or hypomanic symptoms or rapid cycling in persons with undiagnosed BD. Thus, screening in these high-risk groups is indicated. Effective treatments exist, and many can be safely and effectively administered by primary care clinicians.
Prevention and Initial Management of HIV Infection
Since July 2017, when In the Clinic last addressed management of HIV infection, there have been meaningful improvements in our ability to prevent HIV and to manage patients living with HIV. New approaches to preexposure prophylaxis and more effective treatments have made the elimination of HIV infection a feasible goal. The federal “Ending the HIV Epidemic” initiative aims at a 90% reduction in new HIV diagnoses by 2030. This article provides updated information on how clinicians should use these improvements to manage their patients who are at risk for HIV infection or are newly diagnosed with HIV.