Subspecialty and Combined Training Careers

Although this section of IMpact explores the subspecialty and combined training careers on internal medicine, it's worth emphasizing what makes internal medicine unique. Internal medicine physicians see things differently. Holistically. And in a unique way that allows them to analyze, lead, and humanize health care in a variety of different settings and roles. See all the career opportunities internal medicine can provide.

Interventional Cardiology

The Discipline

Interventional Cardiology represents advanced training in cardiovascular disease and focuses on the invasive (usually catheter-based) management of heart disease.

Clinical issues usually managed by interventional cardiologists include:

  • Ischemic heart disease (percutaneous coronary intervention (angioplasty), stent placement, coronary thrombectomy)
  • Valve disease (valvuloplasty, percutaneous valve repair or replacement)
  • Congenital heart abnormalities (repair of atrial and ventricular septal defects, closure of patent ductus arteriosus, angioplasty of the great vessels)

Interventional cardiologists typically practice in cardiology group practices and in medical institutions in which these types of procedures are performed.


Interventional cardiologists must complete an additional year of training beyond a general internal medicine residency and fellowship in cardiovascular disease; this training is most commonly done immediately following a cardiovascular disease fellowship. Following completion, Interventional Cardiology fellows are eligible for board certification by the American Board of Internal Medicine.

Training Positions

In the 2022-2023 academic year, there were 177 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited training programs in infectious disease with 376 trainees.

Major Professional Societies

  • Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

See all the career pathways open to internal medicine doctors.

Back to the December 2022 issue of ACP IMpact