In the Clinic is a monthly feature in Annals of Internal Medicine introduced in January 2007 that focuses on practical management of patients with common clinical conditions. It offers evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions about screening, prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and patient education and provides physicians with tools to improve the quality of care. All ACP members and Annals subscribers have full access to this content.
Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a common clinical entity. Expert management of acute GIB requires collaborative care between internists and other specialists. This article reviews the presentation, treatment, and prevention of acute GIB using recommendations from recent guidelines and expert panel reviews. The article acknowledges the pivotal role played by primary care providers in the inpatient and outpatient management of acute GIB.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an endocrine disorder in which pancreatic β cells stop producing insulin, typically due to autoimmune destruction. This results in hyperglycemia and ketosis; thus, insulin replacement is vital to management. Incidence peaks in puberty and early adulthood, but onset can occur at any age. However, prevalence is highest among adults because persons with T1DM live for many years. Symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis, which requires urgent management. Long-term complications include microvascular and macrovascular disease. Patients with T1DM are at higher risk for other autoimmune diseases and psychosocial issues. Management should focus on optimizing glucose control to reduce acute and long-term complications.