Social, Behavioral, and Metabolic Risk Factors and Racial Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in U.S. Adults: An Observational Study

(From the September 2023 Annals for Educators)

Despite a substantial reduction in cardiovascular disease mortality in the U.S. general population, racial and ethnic disparities persist. This study examines the degree to which these racial differences remain once measured behavioral factors, metabolic risks, and social determinants of health are accounted for.

Use this article to:

  • Review the concept of confounding and how it applies in this study.
  • Review the concept of social determinants of health. This article and this article may help inform your analysis.
  • What are the implications of the various ways clinical studies define race?
  • List the pros and cons of including race as a variable in clinical studies.
  • Given the findings of this study, should race be included if good data on social determinants of health are available?

Annals for Educators is a Web Exclusives feature of Annals of Internal Medicine which includes activities using selected Annals articles to help medical educators in their teaching activities.

Back to the October 2023 issue of ACP IMpact