In the Clinic is a monthly feature in Annals of Internal Medicine introduced in January 2007 that focuses on practical management of patients with common clinical conditions. It offers evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions about screening, prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and patient education and provides physicians with tools to improve the quality of care. All ACP members and Annals subscribers have full access to this content.
Community-acquired pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. It can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can be prevented through vaccination with pneumococcal, influenza, and COVID-19 vaccines. Diagnosis requires suggestive history and physical findings in conjunction with radiographic evidence of infiltrates. Laboratory testing can help guide therapy. Important issues in treatment include choosing the proper venue, timely initiation of the appropriate antibiotic or antiviral, appropriate respiratory support, deescalation after negative culture results, switching to oral therapy, and short treatment duration.
Care of the Patient After Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery
Weight loss surgery, also known as metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS), is an effective weight loss treatment and is associated with reduced mortality and improvements in obesity-related health conditions and quality of life. Postsurgical anatomical and physiologic changes include decreased absorption of micronutrients and alterations in gut–brain hormonal regulation that affect many aspects of health. Patients require ongoing monitoring of their physical and mental health for lasting success. Internists, particularly primary care clinicians, are in an ideal position to monitor for nonserious complications in the short and long term, adjust management of chronic diseases accordingly, and monitor for mental health changes. This article reviews key issues that internists should be aware of for supporting patients' health in the short and long term after MBS.