You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience.
Become a Fellow
ACP offers a number of resources to help members make sense of the MOC requirements and earn points.
Understanding MOC Requirements
Earn MOC points
The most comprehensive meeting in Internal Medicine.
April 11-13, 2019
Internal Medicine Meeting 2019
Prepare for the Certification and Maintenance of Certification (MOC)
Exam with an ACP review course.
Board Certification Review Courses
MOC Exam Prep Courses
Treating a patient? Researching a topic? Get answers now.
Visit AnnalsLearn More
Visit MKSAP 18Learn More
Visit DynaMed Plus
Ensure payment and avoid policy violations. Plus, new resources to help you navigate the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA).
Access helpful forms developed by a variety of sources for patient charts, logs, information sheets, office signs, and use by practice administration.
ACP advocates on behalf on internists and their patients on a number of timely issues. Learn about where ACP stands on the following areas:
© Copyright 2018 American College of Physicians. All Rights Reserved. 190 North Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106-1572
Toll Free: (800) 523.1546 · Local: (215) 351.2400
ILLUSTRATION: The ophthalmoscopic findings of round and striate hemorrhages, cotton wool spots, venous dilation and sheathing along with edema limited to a quadrant of the retina (inferior temporal in this case) are characteristic of BRVO. The area involved is pie shaped with the apex of the pie at an A/V crossing defect (arrow). Some of the edema encroaches on the macula resulting in decreased vision. As the edema resolves small, waxy formations of lipid and protein (hard exudates) remain.
DISCUSSION: The most common systemic association with BRVO is a history of hypertension and the development of arteriolarsclerosis with its resulting A/V nicking defects. Glaucoma is also a risk factor. Vision is entirely dependent on the extent of macular involvement. Neovascularization of the retina may develop in the involved area. Photocoagulation therapy may be considered in eyes with chronic macular edema or retinal neovascularization. Overall, 50-60% of patients with all types of BRVO will maintain vision of 20/40 or better after 1 year.