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A few months after the United States entry into the Second World
War, Dr. Maurice Pincoffs, the editor of Annals, was
called into active service with the Army. On Dr. Pincoffs'
recommendation, Assistant Editor Dr. Paul Clough became Editor for
the duration of Dr. Pincoffs' military service. Dr. Clough
appointed Dr. Hansley Barker of Baltimore as Acting Assistant
Editor, with both taking office on May 1, 1942. With so many
members serving in the military (over 20%) or having to take on
additional responsibilities as a result of the war, a concern rose
that there might be difficulty in obtaining appropriate
contributions for publication. Annals Acting Editor Dr. Clough
gathered enough suitable materials to enable Annals to publish
through the first few months of 1943 without incident. Dr. Clough
also used some issues of Annals to publish papers presented at
regional postgraduate meetings. Although the College cancelled all
Annual meetings for the duration of the war, regional and
educational meetings continued.
As a result of the war, the College's cost for the printing of
Annals by the Lancaster Press increased by 10 percent per issue in
1942. As members who were serving in the military had their fees
waived, there was concern that Annals might have a significant
decrease in subscription revenue. But such concerns proved
immaterial as the Army and Navy increased subscriptions for
military hospitals, and many members in the armed services, despite
their wavier from dues, continued to pay the full subscription
costs. In order to comply with federal restrictions on paper during
wartime, the size of Annals volumes had to be reduced
slightly. While initially there was concern about the quality of
articles available for publication during World War II, the volume
of contributions was significant enough to alleviate any concerns.
There was occasional difficulty in publishing the journal on time
due to shortages brought on by governmental regulations during
wartime and labor troubles.
By the end of 1945 the circulation of Annals exceeded
7500, which was more than double that in the previous decade.
Advertising rates had also increased by 45% over the same time
period, and Annals subscription income was estimated to be
over $53,000.00 ($617,000.00 in 2011 USD). By early 1946 Dr.
Clough, Acting Editor of Annals, announced that Dr.
Pincoffs was discharged from the Army and after a short period
would be returning as to his post as editor. During his army
service Dr. Pincoffs was decorated twice for bravery in combat and
exceptional meritorious service. He was awarded the Legion of Merit
with Oak Leaf Cluster and was appointed Chief Consultant in
Internal Medicine to the Surgeon General for the Pacific Theatre of
Operations. By 1948 Annals was again being published
without delay, as wartime paper shortages were no longer an
The postwar economic boon and the prestige of Annals
had enabled further production and revenue development, such as
using heavier coated paper and raising advertising rates by 16%.
The Committee on the Annals of Internal Medicine was
dissolved and replaced by an Editorial Board. In June 1954, with
the completion of Volume 40 of the Annals of Internal
Medicine, the first cumulative index of the journal was
prepared and distributed to College members and requesting
subscribing libraries. When Dr. Pincoffs first became Editor of the
Annals of Internal Medicine it was a small publication,
occasionally struggling during the worst depression in American
history. By 1959 the circulation of Annals was nearly
24,000 and it was regarded as the best medical journal in its field
in the world.
-Prepared November 2011 by Eric Greenberg, based on
materials from the Archives of the American College of Physicians
and, Morgan, W. G. (1940). The American College of Physicians It's
First Quarter Century. Philadelphia: American College of
Physicians, Piersol GM. (1962) Gateway of Honor. Philadelphia:
American College of Physicians and Annals of Internal Medicine at
Age 75: Reflections on the Past 25 Years ANN INTERN MED July 2,